The ability of a bond issuer to redeem the bond before its maturity date.
Financial contract that gives the holder the right, but not the obligation, to buy an underlying asset at a predetermined price.
Call to action
Marketing message that encourages a specific action from the audience.
Graphical representation of stock price movements over time, used in technical analysis.
Capital adequacy ratio (CAR)
Ratio of a bank’s capital to its risk-weighted assets, used to assess its financial stability.
Process of distributing financial resources among different investment opportunities.
Increase in the value of an asset over time.
Agreements to invest a certain amount of capital in a project or company.
Capital Market Operations
Activities involved in capital market transactions.
Financial markets for buying and selling securities.
Process of obtaining funding for a company.
Capital Raising Process
Steps taken to raise capital for a company.
Capital raising strategies
Methods used to raise capital for a company.
Mix of debt and equity financing used by a company.
Capital structure optimization
Maximizing the balance between debt and equity financing.
Table that shows the ownership structure of a company, including the percentage of ownership held by each shareholder.
Carry or performance fee
Fee charged by investment managers based on performance.
Illegal collusion among competitors to control prices or markets.
Cash flow analysis
The examination of a company’s inflows and outflows of cash to assess its financial health.
Certificate of deposit (CD)
Time deposit with a fixed interest rate and maturity date.
Process of managing organizational change.
Donations to charitable organizations.
Mechanisms that halt trading in the event of extreme market volatility.
Interaction with clients to understand their needs and provide solutions.
Management of relationships with clients.
Asset pledged as security for a loan.
The process of pledging assets as security for a loan.
Collateralized Debt Obligations (CDOs)
Securities backed by a pool of debt obligations.
Process of managing and monitoring collateral assets.
Secret agreement between parties to deceive or defraud others.
Raw materials or primary agricultural products that can be bought and sold.
Equity ownership in a company.
Ability to convey information clearly and effectively.
Plan for effective communication with stakeholders.
Evaluation of competitors’ strengths and weaknesses.
Analysis of market competition and industry trends.
Financial instruments with intricate structures and features.
Complexity of investments
The level of difficulty in understanding and valuing a particular investment.
Process of ensuring adherence to regulatory requirements and internal policies.
The process of ensuring that a company is following applicable laws and regulations.
The risk of loss due to a lack of diversification in a portfolio.
Legal agreements that prohibit the disclosure of confidential information.
The process of resolving disputes between parties.
Conflicts of interest in credit rating agencies
Situations where a credit rating agency’s interests may conflict with its duty to provide accurate ratings.
A merger between companies in unrelated industries.
The process of combining two or more companies into a single entity.
The actions and decisions of individuals when purchasing goods or services.
Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB)
A U.S. government agency that regulates financial products and services offered to consumers.
Contract review and negotiation
The process of reviewing and negotiating the terms of a legal agreement.
Control of the company
The ability to make decisions that affect a company’s operations and direction.
The additional value paid for a controlling stake in a company.
Bonds that can be converted into equity at a later date.
Debt securities that can be converted into equity at a later date.
Decisions made by a company’s management that affect its shareholders, such as stock splits or dividend payments.
Corporate bond market
The market for buying and selling debt securities issued by corporations.
Corporate debt instruments
Bonds or other debt securities issued by corporations to raise capital.
Corporate debt securities
Bonds or other debt instruments issued by corporations to raise capital.
The management of a company’s financial resources, including investments, capital structure, and risk management.
Corporate Finance Advisory
The provision of financial advice and services to corporations, including mergers and acquisitions, capital raising, and financial restructuring.
Corporate finance departments of large corporations
The teams responsible for managing a company’s financial activities, including investments, capital structure, and risk management.
Corporate finance strategy
The plan for managing a company’s financial resources to achieve its goals.
The system of rules, practices, and processes by which a company is directed and controlled.
Corporate governance examination
The evaluation of a company’s management and decision-making processes to ensure they are ethical and effective.
The process of reorganizing a company’s structure, operations, or finances to improve its performance.
A statistical measure that indicates the degree to which two variables are related.
Correlation and covariance analysis
Statistical methods used to measure the relationship between two variables.
Investment strategies that take advantage of the relationship between different financial assets.
Cost of capital
The cost of financing a business, including both debt and equity.
Cost of Debt
The cost of borrowing money, typically expressed as an interest rate.
Counterparty credit limits
Limits set by banks on the amount of credit extended to a counterparty.
Counterparty credit risk
The risk of financial loss due to default by a counterparty in a credit transaction.
The risk of financial loss due to default by a counterparty in a financial transaction.
Provisions in loan agreements that limit the actions of borrowers to protect lenders.
The process of evaluating the creditworthiness of a borrower or issuer.
Credit Default Swaps
Financial instruments used to transfer credit risk from one party to another.
Credit default swaps (CDS) and credit ratings
Financial instruments used to transfer credit risk, often based on credit ratings.
Credit Extension Services
Services provided by banks to extend credit to customers.
Debt securities whose value is linked to the creditworthiness of an underlying entity.
A measure of the creditworthiness of a borrower, assigned by a credit rating agency.
Credit rating agencies
Companies that assess the creditworthiness of borrowers and issue credit ratings.
The risk of financial loss due to default on a loan or other credit obligation.
Credit risk assessment
An evaluation of the risk of default on a loan or other credit obligation.
Credit risk exposure
The potential loss a lender may face if a borrower defaults on a loan.
A measure of a borrower’s ability to repay a loan.
The evaluation of a borrower’s creditworthiness based on their financial history and other factors.
The process of assessing a borrower’s ability to repay their debt.
Creditworthiness of a company or government entity
The ability of a borrower to repay their debt.
The practice of selling additional products or services to existing customers.
Opportunities to sell additional products or services to existing customers.
Cultural compatibility assessment
An evaluation of the compatibility of different cultures in a business or organization.
The process of merging different cultures into a cohesive whole.
The ability to understand and respect cultural differences and adapt behavior accordingly.
Forms of money used in different countries.
Currency exchange rate risks
The risk of financial loss due to fluctuations in exchange rates between currencies.
Bank accounts that allow customers to deposit and withdraw money on demand.
Services provided by banks to hold and safeguard assets on behalf of clients.
Customer feedback mechanisms
Methods used to collect feedback from customers, such as surveys, focus groups, and social media monitoring.
Customer Relationship Management
A strategy for managing interactions with customers to improve relationships and increase customer loyalty.
The degree to which a customer is satisfied with a product or service.
Customer satisfaction surveys
Surveys conducted to measure the level of satisfaction of customers with a product or service.
Dividing customers into groups based on shared characteristics to better understand their needs and preferences.
Assistance provided to customers before, during, and after a purchase or transaction.
Customer service excellence
Providing exceptional service to customers to build loyalty and trust.
Steps taken to protect computer systems and networks from unauthorized access or attacks.